The oral cavity hosts an environment full of life. The types of microbes found in the oral cavity include: streptococci, staphylococci, corynebacteria, methylotroph, neisseria, lactobacilli, candida, solobacterium moorei, and many others. Bad breath is usually caused by the bacteria that live in a person's mouth. Bacteria consume foods and excrete wastes. The wastes of some oral bacteria contain sulfur compounds. These odoriferous wastes often are the cause of halitosis.
Periodontal disease is caused by plaque, the colorless film of bacteria that continually forms on teeth. The bacteria create toxins that irritate the gums and gradually destroy the tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth. Blood coming from the gum fuels the bacteria with protein, causing halitosis.
Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingiva (the gums). The gingiva turns red and loses its natural shape. Bleeding occurs easily, especially when brushing your teeth. In some cases, gingivites may lead to loss of tissue between the teeth.
Periodentitis is a more serious form of gingivitis, also called pyorrhea. Plaque and tartar are thin films of food particles and saliva that form on the surface of teeth. They provide a breeding ground for bacteria which then cause tooth decay. The teeth may become loose and may fall out.
A trench mouth is a painful form of gingivitis gum inflammation. Trench mouth happens when there is an excess of normal mouth bacteria resulting in infection of the gums, which turn into painful ulcers.
The bacteria that cause dental caries can metabolize sugar, produce a corrosive lactic acid and produce a sticky dental plaque. The acid in the plaque dissolves the mineral structure of the teeth. Eventually the enamel will get a hole. The smell comes from a pulp of a tooth that has become necrosed by tooth decay.
Abscess is an accumulation of infected material (pus) enclosed in the tissues of the jaw bone. An offensive odor may be present.
Dry mouth, also called xerostemia, happens when salivary glands don't work properly and the flow of saliva decreases. Saliva is necessary to cleanse the mouth and remove particles that may cause odor.
The surface of dentures collects bacteria, yeast, fungi, food particles and cells shedded from the roof of the mouth and the lower jaw. These materials break down into volatile organic compounds, which are very similar to the halitosis compounds found on natural teeth.
When a person's mouths does not produce sufficient amounts of saliva, the mouth becomes dry. The lack of saliva in the mouth means there is a lack of oxygen. Such a condition makes it easier for sulfur-producing bacteria to thrive.
Hairy tongue is a common condition caused by defective descamation of the many small nodules (papillae) that give the dorsum of the tongue a furry appearance. It may cause halitosis and a burning sensation.